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The following was written by Kenyan Charter Team member Alex Njeru 

The village is Ol-Moran, nestled deep and pretty in the Kenyan savannah.  Women sit on low stools outside a smoke filled grass thatched and mud-walled women. The women chatter about everything, from; the weather to local gossip is on the table to, each holds forward a big enamel cup forward as the host pours thin tea from a large aluminium kettle. After quite some helping of tea, it is time for the business of the day to start.  Each woman fishes 50 shillings and puts in bowl in the centrally placed stool, all 20 of them. The secretary of the group gets her black book out, it is time for the late comers to pay their fines, see everybody was supposed to be here by, 2:00 PM the late comers must pay a surcharge. The host of the day will be taking the sum of their contributions, 1000 shillings to be exact. She could buy seeds for the upcoming planting season, buy a new dress or pay fees for her children it is really up to her.  The urbane and schooled call this table banking, this is women know non of this, this is a monthly contributory merry-go round and this is how these women get by.

This is Ronald Ngala Street Nairobi, it 6.00 in the evening, multitudes on their way home, buses honking their way through the city. The hawkers in coordinated chirrups as they sell their wares, from; vests to Chinese watches, handkerchiefs to exotic Kiwi fruits, they trade their ways. All of a sudden hell breaks loose, the hawkers dis-assemble their small table top shops within seconds and run, run they must from the dreaded City council police. Some hawkers with their tiny toddlers, some pregnant they disappear among the multitudes, they will be back. Much, much later in the night they will sit together, each will contribute to the benevolent fund and each will contribute their savings and credit scheme, one of them will walk with five thousand shillings today.

Back in the highlands a truck has just delivered the tent and plastic seats the villagers have been saving for it has taken them an year, each house hold had to contribute 3,000 shillings. The tent buys convenience, no more being rained on in weddings and funerals, no more relying on the benevolence or lack thereof of the politicians, this is self-sufficiency.


The Nation CAMPUSLIFE, in collaboration with AfricanLiberty.org and Network for a Free Society, is calling for entries into an essay competition.

Question: Freedom creates prosperity. It unleashes human talent, invention and innovation, creating wealth where none existed before. Discuss.

Eligibility: All African Students in any tertiary institutions (university, polytechnic, college of education and technical schools) in Africa. The format of the text should be in Microsoft word and not more than 1,500 words.

Interested students can visit www.africanliberty.org for background materials. Note that plagiarism is not allowed; any text or sentences copied from other people works must be indicated in quotation marks and credit must be given at the bottom of the paper to the author. Any entry that contains plagiarised work will be disqualified.

On the first page of the completed essay, please write your full names, department, level of study and name of institution. Also include your email address and mobile phone number. Send your entries to adedayo.thomas@gmail.com

Entries will be received between March 6 and June 6, 2014. Late entries will not be accepted. Winners will be announced on July 3 , 2014. All entries will get a free book titled Why Liberty by Tom G. Palmer OR Foundation of a Free Society by Eamonn Butler. Please be sure you include your postal address if different from your school address.

Prizes: 1st – George Ayittey (Platinum Prize): $1,000 and scholarship to 2014 Students and Young Professional African Liberty Academy (SYPALA)/ASFL at the University of Cape Town Business School, South Africa, from August 14-17, 2014

2nd – Anthony Fisher (Gold Prize): $700 and scholarship to 2014 Students and Young Professional African Liberty Academy (SYPALA)/ASFL at the University of Cape Town Business School, South Africa, from August 14- 17, 2014

3rd – Derenle Edun (Silver Prize): $500 and scholarship to 2014 Students and Young Professional African Liberty Academy (SYPALA)/ASFL at University of Cape Town Business School. South Africa, from August 14- 17, 2014



“If we are to understand how society works, we must attempt to define the general nature and range of our ignorance concerning it. … The misleading effect of the usual approach stands out clearly if we examine the significance of the assertion that man has created his civilization and that he therefore can also change its institutions as he pleases. … In a sense it is true, of course, that man has made his civilization. It is the product of his actions or, rather, of the action of a few hundred generations. This does not mean, however, that civilization is the product of human design, or even that man knows what its functioning or continued existence depends upon. …If we are to advance, we must leave room for a continuous revision of our present conceptions and ideals which will be necessitated by further experience. We are as little able to conceive what civilizations will be, or can be, five hundred or even fifty years hence as our medieval forefathers or even our grandparents were able to foresee our manner of life today.” (F. A. Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty [The Definitive Edition edited by Ronald Hamowy], Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press, 2011, p. 74)

2014 Essay Contest

Why is recognition of human ignorance an important starting point for Hayek? To what degree is human liberty important for the progress of civilization? Can the pretense of knowledge, independent of experience, mislead decision-making?

  • First prize: $2500 cash award + travel grant*
  • Second prize: $1500 cash award + travel grant*
  • Third prize: $1000 cash award + travel grant*

Visit www.mps2014.org for more information on the General Meeting.

The Hayek Essay Contest is open to all individuals 35 years old or younger. Entrants should write a 5,000 word (maximum) essay. Essays are due on May 31, 2014 and the winners will be announced on July 15, 2014. Essays must be submitted in English only. Electronic versions should be sent to: mps@heritage.org. Prizes are given to the top three essays and include a Hayek Fellow cash award plus a travel grant* to our Society’s next General Meeting in Hong Kong August 31-September 5, 2014. The essays will be judged by an international panel of three senior members of the Society. *Travel grant includes coach class airfare, registration fee, and most meals. Hotel, food, and other expenses will be the responsibility of the attendee. Please contact us at mps@heritage.org with additional questions.

 Announcing the

1st Annual African Students For Liberty Conference

July 25-26 2014, University of Ibadan, Nigeria


 African Students For Liberty is proud to present the first annual ASFL Conference at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Join ASFL from Friday, the 25th of July through Saturday, the 26th of July for a weekend of inspiring lectures, insightful knowledge, and endless networking with pro-liberty students and young professionals from around the world.

By attending the conference, you will hear from top speakers in the freedom movement, network with other pro-liberty students, discover countless opportunities for jobs, internships, conferences and seminars, and have a lot of fun with other students. This event will feature tremendous speakers and panels on the ideas that lead to a free society and the actions necessary to implement them. In addition,  free meals and drinks and our evening social are included with your FREE registration. Don’t miss out on your chance to be a part of the student movement for liberty! Register here


Location: Trenchard Hall, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

 Registration is Free 


The following was written by Kenyan Charter Team member Alex Njeru 

I will revisit this debate, not because I think I have something so critical and important to add, but because an opportunity presents itself to me to revisit an old high-school high-school debate on the same issue. That was seven years ago, clearly this debate has been here for much longer than my quarter decade or so of life, nonetheless at no time has this debate been as critical as it is now.

First because the debate is festering publicly, the moralists have spoken in loud and un-equivocal voices, they want to rid-off this continent of the ‘vermin’ that is homosexuality. The real moralists amongst us, who want, tolerance in society are afraid to speak out for fear of upsetting the moral grain and thus Africa society as it stands titters on a precipice, one step forward and we are off, flying into the ravine, hard rock and a crushed skull await us at the bottom. Some want to lynch their very own, toss them into the seas like Idi Amin and the slave traders before him did, others want to flog them in public just like the colonialist did and oh it does not matter whether they be gay or not they are Africans with who call Africa soil home to. (more…)

The following was written by Kenyan Charter Team member Alex Njeru 

Kenyans are generally an optimistic lot and I hate it when I burst the optimism that levitates around the country. Unprecedented historic events most often than not galvanize the country with hope, although this sense of hope or more aptly put ‘sense of false hope’  allows for recession of wisdom and reason especially among (us) the intellectuals who are supposed to be the noetic anchors of Kenyan society. Unfortunately this is what happened a few years back. In the year 2010 Kenyans overwhelmingly passed into being a new constitution that was supposed to extricate the country from malaise and maladies that plagued the country’s governance. So, a period during which the country was enveloped in a particularity strong gush of optimism, Kenyans emotionally voted in a new constitution.

In the heat of the moment of Kenyan intellectuals intentionally absconded from their duty and obligation of advising the country on questions of future being. Forethought and caution were thrown to the dogs, we all danced and made merry while the champagne lasted. Now the champagne glasses are empty and we are left with the colossus a constitution, which will be very difficult to implement. This in essence means that the goals envisaged by passing the new constitution will be either be unachievable or suffer unnecessary time lags in their achievement.

Fast forward, two years from the historic day and Kenya already finds itself in a constitutional crisis. It is indeed unimaginable that the most nibble legal minds misled the country and did not monish the country about forthcoming constitutional paralysis. For the purpose of this article it would be prudent to make reference to articles in the Kenyan Constitution that seemingly seem impossible to implement. Article 81 (b) of the Kenyan constitution specifically states that ‘not more than two-thirds of the members of elective public bodies shall be of the same gender.’ Whereas I must acquiesce that the envisages of the constitution especially with regards to remedying historical gender asymmetry is laudable lacunas in the document mean that we could end up having a bloated upper house of parliament.

The stroke of the president’s pen that signed and promulgated the new law into being ushered in the following possibilities for the Kenyan tax payer; a bloated upper house of parliament, Kenya’s parliament which is unicameral today happens to have 212 members, the post 2012 parliament will be bicameral in nature with the upper house having at least 350 members and the senate consisting of at least 60 senators. In addition Kenyans will have to make do with the fact that they will have to pay for the hitherto non-existent county government.


  Announcing the

1st Annual East African Students For Liberty Regional


with the Atlas Leadership Academy

May 9-10 2014, Catholic University of East Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

Atlas Network East Africa Think Tank Startup Training May 7-8


African Students For Liberty is proud to present the first annual East African Regional Conference at the Catholic University of East Africa, Nairobi, Kenya.

Join ASFL from Friday, the 9th of May until Saturday, the 10th of May for a weekend of inspiring lectures, insightful knowledge, and endless networking with pro-liberty students and young professionals from around the world.

By attending the conference, you will hear from top speakers in the libertarian movement, network with other pro-liberty students, discover countless opportunities for jobs, internships, conferences and seminars, and have a lot of fun with other students. This event will feature tremendous speakers and panels on the ideas behind a free society and the actions necessary to implement them. In addition, five free meals and drinks and our evening social are included with your FREE registration. Don’t miss out on your chance to be a part of the student movement for liberty! Register here.

Just before the East African Conference, ASFL is partnering with the Atlas Economic Research Foundation to host a training for Startup Think Tanks in the East African Region. Interested participants can apply here.




 Location: Pope Paul VI Auditorium, Catholic University of East Africa, Nairobi, Kenya

Registration is FREE! 


Calvin Burgess is the founder and CEO of Dominion Group of Companies. Mr. Burgess is a graduate of British Columbia Institute of Technology, (1972) Calvin Burgess managed a major construction company in Victoria, B.C. Upon moving to the U.S. in 1976, he established Canam Construction Company in Edmond, Oklahoma. Within 15 years of its founding, Canam had become the largest general construction firm headquartered in the Oklahoma City area.

The origin of the dominion group dates back to 1977 when Burgess when Mr. Burgess founded a general contracting firm. That business expanded into commercial real estate development in 1986, since which year the Dominion Group has sited, designed, built and financed over 3.2 million square feet of public and commercial properties. Active in North America, Central America and Africa, The Dominion Group pursues unique business opportunities, often with a contrarian approach to investment. Several of Mr. Burgess’ entities have pioneered their fields of work and have materially advanced the concept of privatization.

Spirit Wing Aviation was formed by Calvin Burgess in 1988. The company engages in two principal activities; (1) the ownership and operation of corporate aircraft used in the business transportation of Dominion officers and employees, and (2) the modification of 24 and 25 series Learjets with the new Williams-Rolls Royce FJ44-2C fanjet.

In Kenya and indeed Africa Dominion Group has its footprint in the Dominion Farms. Dominion Farms Kenya Limited was chartered in Kenya in 2003. Since then Dominion Farms has turned over 4000 acres of previously un-accessible farmland into productive and sustainable farmland. Today Dominion Farm is the Single Largest producer of rice in Kenya, and employs over 800 locals.

Mr. Burgess is active in a number of faith-based operations focused on the education, training and motivation of citizens of poor and developing nations.


Eng. Patrick Obath is a Graduate of Notingham University UK with a BSc (Hons) Mechanical Engineering degree. Mr. Obath has over 36 years experience in the private sector. He is a; Director of the Kenya Power and Lighting Company Limited, the Tournament Director of the Kenya Open Golf Tournament, Director of African Alliance Investment Kenya Limited, Mr. Obath is also a Partner of Eduardo and Associates, a Consulting firm in Maintenance Engineering, Energy, Health, Safety, Environment and Change Management. Providing solutions that give bottom line improvement whilst enhancing performance.

In the past Mr. Obath has served as the Managing Director and CEO of Shell Kenya and is also the immediate former Chair of the Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA). Mr Obath is an ardent supporter of pro-private sector growth and development.



Matthew Needham is a recent graduate of Michigan State University where he studied Political Theory and Constitutional Democracy. He currently serves as Chairman of Students For Liberty’s North American Executive Board. He previously served as the President of the Michigan State College Libertarians, as well as a Campus Coordinator and Midwest Regional Director with Student For Liberty.  In addition to his work with SFL, Matt has worked as a Koch Summer Fellow with the Mackinac Center for Public Policy and as an intern with the Foundation for Economic Education. 






Japheth Omojuwa is the curator of www.omojuwa.com and contributor of numerous articles on African and Nigerian socio-economic development. His works have appeared in local and international media including Thisday, Financial Times and regular articles on Punch Newspapers. He is a regular commentator on local and international radio and television platforms on Nigeria’s socio-economic challenges and opportunities. He has had consultancy services with the Prometheus Institute United States and currently works with Atlas Economic Research Foundation , Washington D.C. on their African programmes and projects.

Japheth has had consultations with the World Bank and the Heinrich Boll Foundation along with other local organisations including the Public Integrity Networks (PINS). He is a much sought after speaker. Apart from gracing the biggest speaking platforms in Nigeria, he has had speaking engagements across five continents from South America to Europe, North America, Asia and of course Africa. He is one of the most influential Nigerians on social media and a thought leader amongst his peers. Japheth has been an International Election Observer too while also working as a philanthropist in raising funds for terminally ill young Nigerians. He believes that the revolution Africa needs more than anything else is that of ideas and walking the talk of our productive beliefs.  He uses social media to good effect for advocacy, business and social commentary. As a Blogger, he has interviewed past Presidents, Senators, top government functionaries and top celebrities. Japheth (@omojuwa on Twitter) has almost 100,000 followers. Life for him is not just about succeeding but the significance of each success.


Dave Muumbi is a social investor who believes in investing for impact to a community, in 1988, he was elected Chairman for the Kilungu Welfare Society (KWS), a rural community based organization registered in 1946. He was CEO of the Kenya Youth Business Trust from 2009 to 2011 where he helped train youth on the principles of entrepreneurship as a means to job creation, in 2010 with the help of Micro Africa Ltd, he mobilized women from Kaiti constituency in Makueni County in Kenya to develop water storage solutions to aid agricultural production. He graduated with a BSc. Business Administration options in Accounting from California State University in 1982 and a Certificate in Business Mentoring from the Inoorero University, Kenya. He has worked in the Banking sector in Foreign Exchange, Treasury, Marketing and Investment, he was a Director at Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis from 2004 to 2010. He is currently the Managing Director of Daly Investments Ltd.


Tom G. Palmer
 is the executive vice president for international programs at the Atlas Economic Research Foundation, and is responsible for establishing operating programs in 14 languages and managing programs for a worldwide network of think tanks.

Before joining Cato he was an H. B. Earhart Fellow at Hertford College, Oxford University, and a vice president of the Institute for Humane Studies at George Mason University. He frequently lectures in North America, Europe, Eurasia, Africa, Latin America, India, China and throughout Asia, and the Middle East on political science, public choice, civil society, and the moral, legal, and historical foundations of individual rights.

He has published reviews and articles on politics and morality in scholarly journals such as the Harvard Journal of Law and Public PolicyEthicsCritical Review, and Constitutional Political Economy, as well as in publications such as Slate, the Wall Street Journal, the New York TimesDie WeltCaixingAl Hayat, the Washington Post, and The Spectator of London. He is the author ofRealizing Freedom: Libertarian Theory, History, and Practice, published in 2009, and the editor of The Morality of Capitalism, published in 2011.

Palmer received his B.A. in liberal arts from St. Johns College in Annapolis, Maryland, his M.A. in philosophy from The Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C., and his doctorate in politics from Oxford.


Ambassador Akin Oyateru joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Nigeria in 1980 and holds a B.Sc in Political Science and a Masters degree in International Law and Diplomacy from the Universities of Ife and Lagos respectively.

Ambassador Oyateru has been deployed  to various Departments at the Ministry Headquarters including Protocol, Africa, International Organisations, Policy Planning, Administration, Asia & Pacific and the State House, Abuja among others. He has also served at our various Missions overseas among which are Poland, Austria, Namibia and Ireland. An accomplished Diplomat, he has also represented the country at many international conferences.

One time Chief of Protocol of the Foreign Ministry, he has served as the Chief Protocol Officer during the Presidential Inauguration Ceremonies in 1999, 2003 and that of 2007. He has also handled other protocol assignments involving visiting Heads of State and other Very Important Personalities.

He was one time Director of the Asia & Pacific Division of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Nigeria and was the immediate past Minister/Head of Political Affairs Section of the Nigeria High Commission, London, UK

Ambassador Oyateru is married to his amiable wife, Abiola and they are blessed with four children. His hobbies include squash, golf, reading, travelling and Arts.


Ms. Ida Ng’ang’a is currently the outgoing Director in charge of promoting Leadership Development and Entrepreneurship in Africa for the Global Peace Foundation.

Her ultimate purpose is  to empower, inspire and inform the next generation of African leaders. She strongly focuses on mentoring youth associations and runs programs in leadership, democracy and entrepreneurship in schools and universities as well as being an integral part of the Girl Rising Initiative, a global campaign for girls’ education.

She is the Founder of the Association of Young Professionals and Entrepreneurs (AYPEs) which has successfully worked with Google in Kenya on getting Kenyan Business Online KBO and other programs.

AYPEs is the largest convergence of Young Professionals & Entrepreneurs in Africa. The Association also runs the only multi-cultural & inclusive mentoring program for youth associations dealing with careers, entrepreneurship & social change in Africa.

Ms. Ng’ang’a is also a Director of the International Center for SME Development (ICSD) who’s CSR initiatives have funded training for the 1500 member network of successful entrepreneurs, the ICSD Network.

She is a mentor of One Young World Ambassadors  and just recently in October 2013, 15 of her mentees attended the One Young World Conference representing Kenya and were flagged off  by the Cabinet Secretary, the Presidency, Planning and Devolution Ms. Anne Waiguru as well as engaged with luminaries such as Kofi Annan, Sir Richard Branson and Bob Geldof. Another of her mentees 13 year old Stephen Njoroge is the President of the We Care Club (sensitizing youth on environmental issues) and winner of the Bronze International Total Challenge Award, and numerous UN and Africa Union citations, fellow contestants being the world’s leading organizations.

Under her leadership, the Global Peace Foundation is currently rolling out character and entrepreneurship programs in Africa, as well as pilots in Brazil, Paraguay, Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia. She has also previously identified and helped sponsor young Africans for the Harvard Manage Mentor Program.

Kageni Wilson is a Futurist, Innovator, Thinker, Writer and Serial entrepreneur from Nairobi, Kenya. He is an Open source technology advocate & Cloud Computingevangelist; having launched the world’s first free, mainstream Could Computing service named ionacloud in 2011 (The pioneering African cloud service was available in 41 languages and spread to 72 countries on 5 continents in 3 months).  He is currently a partner at AllenHark, an R&D investment firm with interests in Information Technology, Media, Finance and Energy.  



Spread the word 

  • Facebook Event page: Here
  • TWITTER: #sflea14
  • Registration form: Here 


If you have any questions about the best places to stay in Nairobi join our Facebook page  to coordinate with other attendees.

If you have any questions about the conference, please email Olumayowa Okediran at ookediran@studentsforliberty.org or Alex Njeru at anjeru@studentsforliberty.org

The following was written by Kenyan Charter Team member Alex Njeru 

I was born in my grandfather’s home, in a village called Ol-Moran, nested in the Laikipia plains of Kenya, a place where rains often failed, condemning villagers who either depended on the rain for crop farming or pastoralism to drought and suffering. It was a beautiful and blissful place, when there were no ethnic clashes, drought, or marauding elephants in the crop fields. At times zebras grazed alongside cattle and goats. For the large part I was brought up by my maternal grandmother. She has remained an inspiration in my life although she is now deceased. l later moved in with my parents in Nyahururu town, about 80 miles away from the village of my birth where I started my education. I maintained a strong connection with the Ol-moran, first because my heart had already established Ol-moran as the arena of my dreams, and second because my grandma treated me like a prince. She would leave no stone unturned in getting me my favourite delicacies; roast ‘gwaci’ 1   (sweet potato) and ‘nathi’ goose berry.

Those aware of the political environments in Kenya in the 1990’s know that those were tumultuous times for the country; the country was getting acquitted with a new era of multi-partism after years of authoritarian one party rule. There were ethnic clashes every half decade and more so after the general elections. Ol-moran suffered because it lies right at the demarcating point between southern crop farming communities and Northern pastoral-nomadic communities. The clashes of culture and the economic organization sometimes were manifested in the most ugly and violent of ways. My grandfather went from a being proud owner of a sizeable herd of goats to a man without single goat kid, when raiders made away with his flock.

It was after the goat raid that the long trek from my grandmother’s home to the Pokots’ Bomas to barter grain for milk was born. I liked tagging along; I liked the feeling of the first rays of the morning sun kissing my forehead as the sun peeped from the Eastern horizon. I kicked hedgehogs on the way, liked and liked turning baby tortoises over, which was and still is taboo, acts for which I was roundly chided, I watched ostriches scamper away and the zebras graze gracefully, quite oblivious of the file of humanity’s women with grain laden baskets on their backs trudging on through shrubs with the expectation that they would go home with milk. I also tagged along because most of the times, a Pokot woman whose boma* we visited had taken a liking for me, for my morning trek she had taken to the habit of rewarding me with a gourd of sour milk just for. She even taught me her community’s war songs and dances.


The following was written by Nigerian Senior Charter Team member Odunola Oladejo

“When thinking about the merits and limitations of solving problems of social coordination through market mechanisms, it’s useful to clear away some common myths. By myths, I mean those statements that simply pass for obviously true without any need for argument or evidence… The danger is that they are so wide spread, they are not subjected to critical examination”

The first paragraph of the book, ‘Twenty Myths About Markets’ edited by Tom G. Palmer changed my mind set about a free market economy.

My journey to making the world a freer society started when I was invited to the African Liberty Leadership Retreat in 2011. About 30 student leaders came together to discuss their challenges and way forward for the promotion of classical liberal principles in their respective schools. At the Retreat, I had the opportunity to lay my hands on a book; ‘Morality of Capitalism’ (What Your Professors Won’t Tell You), and also went through an English CD, ‘Ideas For A Free Society’, produced by Network For A Free Society which contains relevant liberty-related texts.
Reading Frederic Bastiat’s ‘The Law” encouraged me and some students in my school to get an official approval of a pro-liberty organization, African Liberty Students’ Organization.

Despite the fact that I was an active member of two organizations in my school, being introduced to the Students For Liberty Network in 2012 has increased the passion within me to empower other students for leadership skills so as to become agents of positive change within and outside their communities. (more…)

The following was written by Kenyan Charter Team member Alex Njeru 

I have travelled to several African countries, three to be exact. All of them supposedly democratic, yes all of them hold general elections periodically, presidents, governments and ruling parties are determined this way. In the real sense of the word these countries are democratic. These allegedly democratic countries share one thing in common; they have swathes of populations living in absolute poverty.

What really is the nexus between democracy and poverty, or at least the African version of Democracy and poverty? The folly of African democracy is that it ends at the elections; democracy in Africa is more often than not reduced to electioneering and elections, not to mention that in most cases elections in Africa are neither free nor fair. Reducing democratization to the electoral process has one key impediment to the achievement of real progress and development in Africa. Africa has never really comprehended democracy, and perhaps that is why Africa has somewhat never enjoyed the fruits of democratization. The meaning of the term democracy it seems was lost in translation.

We need to go back to the basics, what are the basic tenets of a functional democracy and do we live by those tenets? Democracy in its entirety should have an axis that revolves around; political systems for choosing and replacing the government through free and fair elections, active participation of the people, as citizens, in politics and civic life, protection of the human rights of all citizens, rule of law, in which the laws and procedures apply equally to all citizens. Generally African countries give lip service and regurgitate around elections. The other tenets of democracy, noticeably; rule of law, civic participation and human rights generally receive short shrift in most African societies. The result is a window dress phenomena where countries appear democratic above the surface but a little scratching below surface uncovers the contradictions that exist in societies that consider themselves democratic.

The nexus between democracy and economic is not development, however it is worth noting that of all rights and freedoms generally constricted in Africa, the freedom to escape from poverty is most conspicuously repressed. Successive regimes have never realized that equity before the law is perquisite of addressing social, political and economic inequality.


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